Jereh Oil & Gas Engineering Corporation

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What is LNG?
Liquefied natural gas or LNG (prodominantly Methane) is a flammable gas which is mined in gas field. LNG is colorless, tasteless non-toxic and non-corrosive. The natural gas is condensed into a liquid i.e LNG, at atmospheric pressure by cooling it to about -162°. LNG takes up about 1/600th the volume of natural gas in the gaseous state, and its weight is only 45% of the same volume of water. LNG heat value is 52MMBtu/t(1MMBtu=2.52×10^8cal)。
What are values of LNG?
LNG is a kind of clean and high-efficiency energy. LNG Import can deversify energy consuming countries' energy struture and secure energy supply and LNG export help nature gas-producing countries to efficiently develop nature gas, make foreign exchange and to promote economy development. So LNG trade is emerging in global energy market. 
As a kind of clean energy ,LNG is becoming more and more popular and has been chosen as the first energy by many countries. The share of natural gas in energy supply is increasing rapidly. LNG supply is increasing by about 12% per year and LNG which has become rare clean energy is becoming one of the fastest develping enery indutries.
What is the universal  standard in LNG industry?
The American Petroleum Institute (API) 620 is most commonly used.
What plan does China make for LNG ?
The natural gas consumption in China is very slow. The share of natural gas in China's energy mix is still small. Natural gas production can not meet rising demand.  Although LNG has not been widely applied,  LNG will surely develops very fast due to its features.  LNG will become the backbone in China's natural gas martket in 10 to 20 years.
With the rapid economic development, China is facing more and more serious energy shortage.  In China, coal is still main coal supply and the share of oil and natural gas is small and far below the golbal average level. Demand on energy is increasing in China. LNG can optimize China's energy structure, effectively solve the problem of securing energy supply and simutaneously protecting environment and facilitate the development of economic and social development.
Where can natural gas be used?
As the important industrial raw material and fuel, natural gas can be applied in following fields.
1. It can be used as a kind of clean and safe energy and supplied to urban residents after it is gasified.
2. It can be used as an alternative to other fossil fuels. After engine is slightly changed, LNG can be used and LNG engines operate safely and produce less polution and noise.  LNG Vehicles can produce emission benefits. According to news reports, compared with CNG vehicles, under the same vehicles can use  LNG.  vechiles whose engine  use of alteUsing LNG as the car's engine fuel, Engine only make appropriate changes, Not only operation safe but also low pollution low noise, Especially in the increasingly stringent emission regulations today, The car with LNG as a fuel, exhaust obviously improved. According to the data reported: Compared to compression Natural Gas (CNG ),Under the condition of the same stroke and the running time, for the medium and medium-duty vehicles, LNG vehicles 20% lower fuel costs and light weight to 2/3.In the same time ,The cost of system for combustion device lower at least 2/3.That can be proved, It is an most economic and effective method to make it applied in transportation fuel by way of making natural Gas liquid and transport it in liquid form .
3.Used as a cold source for producing quick-frozen food  , as well as plastic, rubber cryogenic crushing, etc, And also be used for water desalination and cable cooling.
4 As industrial fuel gas, it can be used in BoKe factoris, process glass factories and other industries.
LNG Properties?
LNG is a cryogenic liquid which contains methane (CH4 )(above90% ), ethane C2H6 ,Nnitrogen N2(0.5%-1%), and little C3~C5. It is the liquid form of natural gas.
1) The prodominant component of LNG is methane (CH4 ) and it also includes little ethane C2H6 , propane (C3H8) and Nnitrogen N2 and other components .
2) The critical temperature is -82.3 ℃.
3) Boiling point is -162.5 ℃; ignition point is 650 ℃.
4) Liquid density is 0.420 ~ 0.46T/m3; gaseous density is 0.68-0.75kg/Nm3.
5) Gas calorific value 38MJ/m3, liquid calorific value 50MJ/kg.
6) Flammability range, 5-15 vol % concentration in air.
7) Octane ASTM: 130.
8) colorless, odorless, non-toxic and non-corrosive.
9) LNG takes up 1/625th volume of natura gas in gaseous state.
How to transpot LNG?
LNG is mainly transpoted by carrier, train and tank-truck. Within a transportation radius of 500 km to 800 km, LNG tank-truck is an ideal way. The tank of tank-truck adopts double wall vacuum powder insulation and is equipped with operating valve safety systems and fluid hoses.The technology of manufaturing cryogenic liquid tank-trucks in China is relatively mature and tank-trucks can be used safely. LNG is stored in cryogenic liquid tanks. The liquid storage tank is insulated by double-walled vacuum powder. LNG daily evaporation rate can be controlled within 0.46%, and the storage period is 4 to 7 days.
What is the LNG Terminal?
An LNG terminal is a facility where LNG is regasified ( turned back into a gaseous state). An LNG terminal consists of LNG terminals and LNG storage tankers. Implementation of LNG cold energy utilization can reduce cold pollution and improve  level comprehensive utilization of energy.
What is the relationship of calorific value among of liquefied petroleum gas, natural gas, gasoline and diesel?
1 liter of gasoline = 0.722-0.725 kg = 7464 kcal
1 liter of diesel = 0.835 kg = 9181 kcal
Calorific value of 1 kg of gasoline is 10,296 kcal
Calorific value1 of 1 kg of diesel is 10,996 kcal
Calorific value of 1 kg of liquefied petroleum gas is equivalent to 1.15 ~1.22 kg of gasoline heat
Calorific value of 1 kg of liquefied petroleum gas is equivalent to 1.12 ~1.2 kg of diesel heat
Calorific valuse of 1 cubic meter of natural gas is equivalent to 0.845 kg ~1.17 liters of gasoline heat
Calorific value of 1 cubic meter of natural gas is equivalent to 0.792 kg diesel heat
What is the shale gas revolution?
Shale gas (predominantly Mathane) is an important unconventional natural gas that is found trapped within shale formaions. Shale gas' formation and enrichment has its own unique characteristics, often located in the basin of thick , widely distributed shale source rock formations . Compared to more conventional natural gas , shale gas has a self-generated self- storage characteristics, it is both shale source rock and reservoir, and it is not subject to structural control , no traps , no clear gas-water interface . Shale gas burial depth range is very huge, its depth from 200 m to 3000 m . Most shale gas production has wide distribution , thickness, and generally containing gas , which makes shale gas wells can be long-term gas production at a steady rate , with a long mine life and long production cycle advantages.
The research and exploration and developmentshale gas resources in the world firstly began in the United States. Rely on mature production technology and perfect development pipeline facilities , the U.S. shale gas costs is only slightly more than conventional gas , which makes the United States as the world's only large-scale commercial implementation of shale gas exploitation in the countries. Data show that in 2010 , the U.S. shale gas production has more than 100 billion cubic meters . In the past five years, the U.S. shale gas production increased is more than 20 times - from 2006 only 1% of its natural gas production to 2010 increased to 20% of U.S. natural gas production . Experts pointed out , relying on the exploitation of shale gas in the next 10 years, the U.S. can not only change the situation of a massive imports of natural gas, but also achieve full self-sufficiency ,moreover,it is also expected to become LNG exporter.
American " shale gas revolution" has shaken the world LNG market structure , and this effect will become more significant , thereby changing pattern of world energy.
What is the scope of Jereh LNG business?
Reliable LNG liquefaction equipment and LNG fueling equipment and related complete technical service can be supplied by Jereh. With advanced natural gas treatment process, excellent equipment packaging ability and strict quality control system, Jereh provides one-stop solutions for natural gas process and has become a famous band in natural gas industry.
Which fileds can Jereh LNG plants be applied?
Jereh LNG equipment can be applied to liquefy
1. CBM,Shale gas and oil field gas.
2. Pipeline natual gas and peak shaving natual gas.
3. Marsh gas, coke-oven gas and landfill gas.
4. Flash gas in LNG terminals and LNG carriers.
What advantages of Jereh LNG plants obtain ?
Jereh obains strong competitive advantages and provides perfect and practical solutions for pojects to customers. Mature process and stable performance can be achieved by accumulated rich experience oil & gas project design and oil & gas treatment and by using top-quality advanced MDEA deacidification, MSD process, tower packing, MDEA amine and amine liquid pump; reliable quality and advanced technologies can be achieved by abundent experience in packaging reciprocating and screw compressors, and key components supplied by Ariel, Howden, LeROI and other top brands.
What are main parameters of Jereh skid-mounted LNG plants?
Main parameters of Jereh skid mounted LNG plants include:
1、Process capacity:5,000~300,000 Nm3/d
2、Refrigenration energy dissipation:≤0.32 kWh/Nm3
3、Equipment operating flexibility:50~110%
Which liquifaction process is used in Jereh skid-mounted LNG plants?
Advanced and economical MRC mixed refrigeration process is used in Jereh skid mounted LNG plants and its liquifaction process flow is illustrated as below.
What convenient design do Jereh LNG plants obtain?

Redundant network to ensure stable system
Redundant Ring / dual network, dual-CPU redundancy control system, 3ms switching, no downtime;
Complying with satellite station construction and future expansion needs;
Independent ESD system, fire and gas alarm system and running control system
2oo3 Fault-Tolerant Redundant Sensor System
ESD safety protection system to ensure emergency stop and avoid misoperation;
Three-dimensional vision with seamless monitoring for the factory, alarm reminders;
Remote monitoring, real-time information receiving by mobile phones, iPad and other terminals;
Offices and living facilities in work areas, providing comfortable working environment with fixed temperature and humidity.

What components do Jereh skid-mounted LNG plant consist of ?
Regulating-metering skid, feed gas compression skid, acid gas removal skid, dehydration and mercury removal skid, refrigerant compression skid, cold box, instrument control skid and power distribution skid.
What field can Jereh natural gas filling system be appied?
Jereh natural gas fueling system can be applied in following fields:
1. Fueling for taxies, city buses, long-distance buses, light trucks, heavy trucks, ships and vessels;
2. Industrial and residential community gas supply;
3. Fueling for dual-fuel engines of oilfield and mining equipment
What advantages do Jereh natural gas fueling system obtain?
According to the different functions of products, Jereh has modular design to meet diverse needs from customers, different modules can be chose and combined based on different station conditions. All skids are pre-installed in the factory, so only simple combination is required on site, making the installation management more quickly and easily. Standardized design makes the future site upgrading and moving more convenient and flexible.
Jereh can provide a full range of natural gas filling solutions for not only small scale skid-mounted fueling stations but large scale stationary fueling system.
Which products does Jereh natural gas fueling system include?
LNG fueling station, LCNG fueling station, CNG fueling station.  LNG fueling station consists of deachable LNG fueling skid and integral LNG skid. CNG fueling station consists of CNG daughter station and CNG mother station.
What is the approval process of LNG filling stations?

The construction of natural gas filling station must be in accordance with the relative national building regulations and procedures for the approval.
The formality of the LNG filling station approval is the premise and necessary conditions for the smooth implementation of the LNG filling station construction, and it is also the foundation and safeguard of the LNG filling station in the later commissioning procedure.
Unlike an ordinary building, the construction of LNG gas filling station should go through a rigorous review process. After passing initial inspection and every aspect inspection of government, the construction should get suggestion and certificate of relevant departments.

1、Project application (feasibility report)

2、Government instructions - Municipal/County Development and Reform Commission

3、Planning and Construction Bureau - environmental protection, safety supervision, land, fire - Construction Bureau.
4、Construction - Supervision - completion and acceptance - operations.

5、Design drawings - Mixed (Administration of Work Safety, Fire) - construction permit - construction quality - inspection reports"

How to shorten the the construction time of LNG liquefaction station to the shortest time?
Under the circumstances of liquid volume of 30000-50000 m3 / day, which is a larger volume, skid-mounted design has the following advantages:
1. Flexible, small footprint. Not dependent on gas pipeline network, just using LNG tankers to carry LNG as the gas source. All process equipment of the station are installed in a lump sum, which overall size is smaller(L12m×W2.5m×H3.31m). And the control system is installed in a modified standard container (L 6m×W 2.5m×H 3m). Before filling LNG, the total weight of skid-mounted LNG station is only 21.8t. The location of skid-mounted LNG station can be changed according to the market requirement at any time, especially in city.
2. Safety, environmental protection, low energy consumption. LNG has been processed through the purification treatment, which does not need be compressed, cooled, dehydrated and desulfurization by apparatus of large power consumption. The entire production process eliminates the natural gas purification equipment and air compressors, which not only saves cost, but also shorten the construction period.
3. High degree of automation, easy to operate. Equipped with automatic control systems, data acquisition, monitoring of combustible gases, overpressure stop the pump and the low pressure pump and other processes are automated, the skid-mounted station is easy to be operated.
What is the requirement for LNG storage tanks with pressure equipment?
LNG under pressure storage usually adopt dual tank(cluster tanks) storage. The child tank generally adopts the pressure tank, which design pressure is of 0.8 MPa, and storage pressure is about 0.3 MPa, while the main effect of mother tank is cold and wind load resistance, between the inner and outer tank filled with insulation layer. Since the children tank manufacturing capacity is restricted, the biggest capacity is 250 m³ currently in domestic and a mother can accommodate the 12 children cans at most, that is to say, the biggest storage capacity of one set mother tank is 3000 m3, so it is difficult for dual tank storage to meet the large scale LNG storage. dual tank storage under pressure does not require BOG compressor, just with ordinary cryogenic pumps for loading and other operations. The advantages of dual tank storage under pressure is simple process, while the disadvantage is the high investment of the larger scale storage.
Generally much larger scale LNG storage choose atmospheric storage tank.
How can the cold energy in LNG teriminals be utilized?
Cold energy in LNG terminals can be widely utilized. Gas turbine mode or expanded mode is chosen by natural gas exportation condition and cold energy can be used to generate electricity. Cold storages can be built beside LNG terminals, and cold energy can be used to freez food. Cold energy can be used to dry and shatter in pharmaceutical and food industries. It can be used to liquefy carbon dioxide. It can also be used to seperate air separation and produce liquid nitrogen, liquid oxygen and liquid argon.
What are the specifications of the skid-mounted LNG stations ?
According to the size of the skid-mounted LNG stations The stations are divided into primary secondary and tertiary.
An primary LNG filling stations, L-CNG filling stations, LNG / L-CNG filling stations:
Total volume of LNG storage tank (m³) 120 <V ≤ 180
Single tank volume of LNG storage tank (m³) ≤ 60
Total volume of CNG gas storage (m³)12
Secondary LNG refueling stations, L-CNG filling stations, LNG / L-CNG filling stations:
Total volume of LNG storage tank (m³) 60 <V ≤ 120
Single tank volume of LNG storage tank (m³) ≤ 60
Total volume of CNG gas storage (m³) 9
Tertiary LNG refueling stations, L-CNG filling stations, LNG / L-CNG filling stations:
Total volume of LNG storage tank (m³) ≤ 60
Single tank volume of LNG storage tank (m³) ≤ 60
Total volume of CNG gas storage (m³) 8
Note: V is the total volume of LNG tanks.
What is the safety standards of the LNG liquefaction facility?
Follow the relevant safety standards in the LNG terminal location design construction and operation management is one of the key points to avoid LNG safety risk. The security requirement of standards at home and abroad for installation of LNG facility mainly involves the following several aspects: LNG spillage or leakage protection requirements, setting specifications and technical requirements to the LNG held area of drainage and liquid storage pool; Setting safe distance, mainly including tank storage tank area, the distance between adjacent facilities and the distance between the workplace, the distance between LNG equipment in the facility and adjacent living, work and all kinds of activities; Requirements & fire safety and fire prevention facilities, such as high density foam generator fire hydrant and water curtain equipment and dry powder fire extinguishers
Is LNG safe?
It is safe. Its flash point is high, and its ignition temperature is approximately 590 ° C, combustion narrower -5% -15%, lighter than air, spread easily.
What is the price of liquefied natural gas (LNG) now?
As of July 26, when is apart from the national development and reform commission (NDRC) published on notice of regulating the door station(gas station) price of natural gas for nearly a month, the existing 10 provinces and cities introduce policies of the highest price of natural gas or the highest selling price scheme for non-resident within its jurisdiction. The ten provinces and cities include Shandong province, Shanxi province, Zhejiang province, Sichuan province, Chongqing city, Hebei province, Anhui province, Tianjin city, lanzhou city of gansu province, Zhongshan city of Guangdong province. The 10 provinces and cities have determined the pricing method of door station. Five provinces and cities of them take stock of incremental gas pricing method(have been identified sales price pricing method), the other five provinces and cities take comprehensive pricing method; Five provinces and cities of them have pricing method of sales price, and the 4 provinces and cities take comprehensive pricing method mainly considering downstream development sustainability.
What is the most advanced LNG liquefaction processes now?
There are different natural gas pretreatment processes and liquefaction processes. Processes directly affect the final liquefaction effect and energy consumption.
Refrigeration processes are very mature. Commonly applied processes include cascade refrigeration cycle, mixed refrigerant refrigeration cycle, and expansion mechanism of cold cycle.
Cascade refrigeration cycle consums the least energy and its efficiency is the highest, but its system is the most complex. So the cascade refrigeration cycle is gradually replaced by mixed refrigerant refrigeration cycle. The nitrogen expander refrigeration cycle is the simplest but it consums the most energy, and its operation costs are the highest. Its reliability is unsatisfactory due to using more high-speed rotating machinery. It has no advantages over other refrigeration cycles. Mixed refrigerant refrigeration cycle is being widely applied, because of its simple process, easy operation and low power consumption.
What is the LNG fueling procedure at the LNG station?
1. After an LNG tanker comes to the station, guide and supervise the driver to stop on the specified unloading dock, and then connect the ground wire and lay an anti slip block.
2. Measure the temperature of LNG in the tanker and the storage tank, and then determine the solution to unloading. If the temperature of LNG in storage tank is higher, LNG should be inlet from the top, otherwise from the bottom.
3. Check the condition of the natural gas liquid phase unloading hoses and gas phase hoses.
4. Check the pressure level of the storage tank in the storage tank zone.
5. Check all valves from unloading platform to the tank are open or close properly.
6. Station operators should check and record the tanker pressure, temperature and liquid level.
7. Station operators should take charge of the operation from the unloading zone to the tank zone, while the tanker supercargo should take charge of the operation from tanker zone to unloading zone. During fueling, all process valves, pipes and instruments should be checked and recorded. Safety should be emphasized.
8.Specific unloading procedures
a. Increase the pressure of the tanker to 0.2MPa. The maximum pressure of the tanker is 0.66MPa.
b. Open the liquid inlet valve correctly after the pressure of the tanker meets the requirement.
c. Observe the inlet tube. If there is frost and sound of fluid, that means the unloading is normal. If there is joints leaking, then stop the unloading operation and eliminate dangerous immediately.
d. Observe the pressure and liquid level changes of the tanker and tank. Keep pressure at about 0.2MPa through operation of depressurizing the tank and pressurizing the tanker, and the maximum pressure of the tanker is 0.66MPa.
e. Close the inlet valve of liquid phase and the inlet shut-off valves of the tank after unloading is finished.
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